Urinary Infections

Urinary infections may affect both male and female and the symptoms depend on the severity of infection as well as the part of the organs in the urinary tract affected by the infection.

Types of Urinary Infections

Based on Severity:

  • Complicated
  • Uncomplicated

Based on site of Infection:

  • Infections in the Kidney (Pyelonephritis)
  • Bladder and urethral infections in Female (Cystitis)
  • Bladder and urethral infections in the Male
  • Infections of Prostate in Male (Prostatitis)
  • Infections in the scrotum (Testis and epidydimis)
  • Urosepsis ( severe infection)
What should I do?

You should seek medical attention as soon as possible. If you feel unwell or have high temperature, you should seem emergency medical help.

What tests I would need?

Urine Tests: This is the first step when an urinary infection is suspected. Urine dipstick test may confirm presence of infection if there is presence of white blood cells and a substance called nitrites. Then the sample will be sent to the microbiological lab to culture for the growth of bacteria and to identify the sensitivity of those bacteria to the antibiotics.

Blood Culture: This may be done only if you are unwell and have high temperature and were hospitalised. In this situation there is risk of spread of infection into the blood and it may be necessary to identify the bacteria and its sensitivity to give appropriate antibiotic treatment.

Imaging (Scans): Depending on the severity of infections, the scans may done as emergency or in a planned way. If the patient need to be hospitalised for the severe infection, an urgent scan is necessary to diagnose or rule-out obstruction or any other underlying causes in the urinary tract. This may include an X-ray, Ultrasound scan or a CT scan.

Bladder Examination: This is likely to be done at some stage for severe infections and recurring infections.

How will I be treated?

Antibiotics: Appropriate antibiotic treatment is the mainstay in the management of urinary infections. The choice of the antibiotic will be base on the type of urinary infections. In complicated infections, intravenous antibiotics may be necessary. In uncomplicated bladder infections, oral antibiotics are sufficient. Your doctor or Urologist will choose the appropriate antibiotic.

Treatment of any Obstruction: in severe infections, if there is any blockage to the kidney or bladder, that obstruction need to be relieved to control the infection. If the bladder is not draining well, a catheter may be inserted. If there is any obstruction to the kidney at the level of the ureter, this may be managed by the insertion of a plastic tube called stent that is placed to bypass the blockage.

If the patient is very unwell, the kidneys may be drained from the back by the insertion of a needle directly into the kidney through the back. This is called Nephrostomy.

Treatment of any underlying cause: Once the infection is settled, the urologist may treat the underlying cause for the infections. This could be a stone blocking the ureters or a prostate in male blocking the bladder or obstruction in the urethra both in male and female.

What can I do to prevent infections?

General Hygienic measures:

Preventive Treatments:

  • Low dose antibiotics
  • Oestrogen treatment in women

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